Gazeta codzienna

Sztuka. Kultura. Nauka.

* * *
Merkuriusz Polski dzieje wszystkiego świata w sobie zamykający dla informacji pospolitej. Od 3 stycznia 1661.
środa, 14 Listopad, 2018 - 12:31

O tzw. plemionach lechickich

wt., 13/08/2013 - 20:59

Plemiona lechickie to w polskijj współczesnej nauce grupa plemion zachodniosłowiańskich, która obok grupy plemion czeskich i plemion łużyckich stanowiła zachodnie plemiona słowiańskie. Z grupy tej wydzieliły się trzy odłamy: plemiona polskie, plemiona połabskie i plemiona pomorskie. słowiańskie, z grupy plemion lechickich zasiedlające południowy brzeg Bałtyku. W skład wielkiego plemienia Pomorzan wchodzili między innymi: Kaszubi, Pyrzyczanie, Wolinianie, Brzeżanie i Słowińcy. Główne grody to: Szczecin,Kołobrzeg, Białogard, Nakło, Pyrzyce, Stargard, Gdańsk, Starogard Gdański.

Do grupy tej zaliczają się:

  • plemiona polskie
    • Polacy południowi
      • Wiślanie
      • Lędzianie
      • Ślężanie
    • Polanie
      • Polanie właściwi
      • Goplanie
      • Mazowszanie
  • Pomorzanie
  • Słowianie połabscy
    • Wieleci
    • Obodryci

Lechites (Polish: Lechici)[1]) is a name given to certain West Slavic peoples, including the ancestors of modern Poles and the historical Pomeraniansand Polabians, speakers of the Lechitic languages.[2][3]

According to The Encyclopædia Britannica:

"Lekhitic languages, also spelled Lechitic , group of West Slavic languages composed of Polish, Kashubian and its archaic variant Slovincian, and the extinct Polabian language. All these languages except Polish are sometimes classified as aPomeranian subgroup. In the early Middle Ages, before their speakers had become Germanized, Pomeranian languages and dialects were spoken along the Baltic in an area extending from the lower Vistula River to the lower Oder River. Kashubian and Slovincian survived into the 20th century; there were still a considerable number of native speakers of Kashubian in Poland and Canada in the 1990s. The extinct Polabian language, which bordered the Sorbian dialects in eastern Germany, was spoken by the Slavic population of the Elbe River region until the 17th or 18th century; a dictionary and some phrases written in the language exist".

History

When Mieszko I (also Dagome) inherited the ducal throne from his father he probably ruled over two-thirds of the territory inhabited by eastern Lechite tribes. He united the Lechites east of the Oder (Polans, Masovians, Pomeranians, Vistulans, Silesians) into a single country: Poland. His son,Bolesław the Brave founded the bishoprics at Wrocław, Colberg, and Cracow, and an archbishopric at Gniezno. Bolesław carried out successful wars against Bohemia, Moravia, Kievan Rus and Lusatia, and forced the western Pomeranians to pay Poland a tribute. Shortly before his death Boleslaw became the first King of Poland 1024.

Lechitic group

  • Poles
    • Masovians
    • Polans
    • Vistulans
    • Goplans
    • Lędzianie (Lendians)
    • Silesian tribes
      • Bieżuńczanie
      • Bobrzanie
      • Dziadoszanie
      • Golęszyce
      • Lubuszanie
      • Opolanie
      • Ślężanie
      • Trzebowianie
    • Pomeranians
      • Kashubians
      • Slovincians (†)
      • Pyrzyczanie (†)
      • Wolinianie (†)
    • Polabians (†)
    • Radimichs[4] (†)
    • Vyatichi[4] (†)
  • Sorbs (Serbo-Lusatians)
    • Milceni (Upper Sorbs)
    • Lusatians (Lower Sorbs)
  • Obodrites/Abodrites (†)
    • Obotrites proper
    • Wagrians
    • Warnower
    • Polabians proper
    • Linonen
    • Travnjane
    • Drevani
  • Veleti (Wilzi) (†)
    • Lutici (Liutici)
      • Kissini (KessinerChizzinenKyzziner)
      • Circipani (Zirzipanen)
      • Tollenser
      • Redarier
    • Ucri (Ukr(an)i, Ukranen)
    • Rani (Rujani)
    • Hevelli (Stodorani)
    • Volinians (Velunzani)
    • Pyritzans (Prissani)
Lechitic languages

The West Slavs included the ancestors of the peoples know later Poles, Pomeranians, Czechs, Slovaks and Polabians. The northern so-called Lechitic group includes, along with Polish, the deadPolabian and Pomeranian languages. The languages of the southern part of the Polabian area, preserved as relics today in Upper and Lower Lusatia, occupy a place between the Lechitic and Czecho-Slovak groups.[5]

 
Poland under Mieszko's rule (ca. 960–992), cc wikimedia
 
The Limes Saxoniae border between the Saxons and the Lechitic Obotrites, established about 810 in present-day Schleswig-Holstein, cc wikipedia
The name "Lech"

The name Lech or Leszek, Lestko, Leszko, Lestek, and Lechosław is a very popular name in Poland. Lech was a popular male name among members of Piast dynasty like Lestko, Leszek I the White, Leszek II the Black, Leszek, Duke of Masovia, Leszek of Racibórz. The oldest part of Gniezno located in the center of Great Poland is known as "Wzgórze Lecha" (eng. "Lech`s Hill"), also known as "Góra Królewska" (ang."Royal Hill").

Lestko (also Lestek, Leszek) noted in the Gesta principum Polonorum[6][7][8] completed between 1112 and 1118 by Gallus Anonymus is the secondlegendary duke of Poland, and son of Siemowit, born ca. 870–880. The Res gestae saxonicae sive annalium libri tres chronicle of 10th centuryGermany written by Widukind of Corvey noted that Mieszko I son of Siemomysł and grandchild of Lestek ruled over the tribe called the Licicaviki[9]that lived in what is now Poland were known as "Lestkowici" - tribe of Lestek identified by some historians with Lendians (=Lechites).

Names Lechitae (Lechites), lechiticus (lechitic) and Lechia to describe of all medieval Poland was used many times by Wincenty Kadłubek inChronica seu originale regum et principum Poloniae (Chronicles of the Kings and Princes of Poland) wrote between 1190 and 1208.[10][11] Chronicle of Greater Poland 1273 described Casimir I the Restorer as "king of Poles means Lechites".[12] Both Poles and Lechites was used in medieval Poland as adequate terms. "Laesir is the Old Norse term for the Ljachar, a people near the Vistula in Poland".[13] Different forms of the name Lechia to describe Polish state is still present in several European languages and some languages of Central Asia and the Middle East "Lenkija" in theLithuanian language, "Lengyelország" in the Hungarian language, "Lehia" in the Romanian language, "Lahestân/لهستان" in Persian (and via borrowing from Persian: "Lehastan" in the Armenian language, and "Lehistan" in the Ottoman Turkish language).

Legends

In Polish literature Lech was also the name of the legendary founder of Poland. The legend describes three brothers, Lech, Čech, and Rus &ndash, who founded three Slavic nations: Poland (also known as Lechia), Bohemia (Čechy, now known as the Czech Republic), and Rus (Ruthenia). In this legend Lech was the founder of Gniezno.

Three brothers Lech, Czech and Rus were exploring the wilderness to find a place to settle. Suddenly they saw a hill with an old oak and an eagle on top. Lech said: this white eagle I will adopt as an emblem of my people, and around this oak I will build my stronghold, and because of the eagle nest (Polish: gniazdo) I will call it Gniezdno (modern: Gniezno). The other brothers went further on to find a place for their people. Czech went to the South (to found the Czech Lands) and Rus went to the East (to create Russia).[12]

A variant of this legend, involving only two brothers Lech and Čech, was first written down by Cosmas of Prague of Bohemia. The legend was described by "Kronika wielkopolska" (ang. "Greater Poland Chronicle")[14] written in 1273 in Latin and Chronicle of Dalimil written in Czech language in 1314.[15]

Fot. Wyszesław, Višeslav - książę chorwacki, ok. 800 r., znany z łacińskiej inskrypcji na chrzcielnicy: VVISSASCLAVO DUCI

 

opr. A. Fularz na podst. Wikipedii, ilustacja: Mapa Polski z 1670 r., przedstawiająca klasyczny podział Polski na państwa plemienne w czasach antycznych